Cite Score:
1.07
CITE SCORE SCOPUS

Gastroprotective Effects of Pistacia atlantica Extract on Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcers in Rats

AUTHORS

Neda Sistani Karampour 1 , Ardeshir Arzi 1 , * , Annahita Rezaie 2 , Fatemeh Ghasemi 3 , Marzieh Pashmforosh 1

1 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran

2 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

3 Faculty of Pharmacy, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran

How to Cite: Sistani Karampour N, Arzi A, Rezaie A, Ghasemi F, Pashmforosh M. Gastroprotective Effects of Pistacia atlantica Extract on Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcers in Rats, Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod. 2019 ; 14(1):e13635. doi: 10.5812/jjnpp.13635.

ARTICLE INFORMATION

Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products: 14 (1); e13635
Published Online: January 12, 2019
Article Type: Research Article
Received: March 3, 2017
Revised: May 24, 2017
Accepted: June 25, 2017
Crossmark

Crossmark

CHEKING

READ FULL TEXT
Abstract

This study aimed to determine the ulcer-protective effect of Pistacia atlantica extract against the lesions induced by ethanol. Pistacia atlantica has shown different pharmacological effects including antioxidant activity. The experimental model lesions pathogenesis was related to reactive species production. All the experiments were conducted on male Wistar rats (weight: 200 - 250 g), which were randomly divided into seven groups. Different doses of Pistacia atlantica extract were orally administered to the experimental groups (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg). Normal saline was orally administered to the ulcer control group (5 mL/kg). In addition, one hour before receiving ethanol (5 mL/kg), the positive control group received ranitidine (50 mg/kg) and the negative control group received normal saline (5 mL/kg). One hour after ethanol application, the animals were anesthetized, the stomachs were removed, and then the number and the length of gastric lesions, as well as the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) (as an index of peroxidation) and level of nitric oxide (as an important antioxidant agent), were determined in rat gastric mucosa. In this study, Pistacia atlantica extracts dose-dependently reduced the number of gastric lesions induced by ethanol. Pre-treatment with Pistacia atlantica extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly decreased the stomach MDA level and increased the stomach NO level. Based on the results, Pistacia atlantica extract can be effective in the prevention of ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats.

Keywords

Pistacia atlantica Ethanol Gastric Ulcer Rats

Copyright © 2019, Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Background

The peptic ulcer is a common gastrointestinal disorder of gastric mucosa that is generally induced in the stomach or duodenum. The fundamental cause of ulceration is an imbalance between gastric offensive factors (e.g., hydrochloric acid, pepsin, refluxed bile, leukotrienes, or reactive oxygen species (ROS)) and defensive factor(s) (e.g., mucosa-bicarbonate barrier, surface-active phospholipids, prostaglandins (PGS), mucosal blood flow, cellular regeneration and migration, non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants, or some growth factors) (1). Neutrophils generate superoxide radical anion (O2.-) that pertains to a group of reactive species. Superoxide radical anion interferes with cellular lipids and results in lipid peroxidase generation. This reaction produces malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynoneal (4-HNE) (2).

Nitric oxide (NO) is a strong mediator of mucosal resistance. Moreover, the role of NO is elucidated by its vasodilation effect and for this reason, its local release is essential for the retention of gastric mucosal blood flow (3).

The first purpose of treating gastric disorders is regulating acid secretion using antacids, H2 receptor blockers (e.g., ranitidine and famotidine), anticholinergics drugs (e.g., pirenzapine), and proton pump inhibitors (e.g., omeprazole) (4). However, considering several side effects and limited efficacy of modern drugs, it is necessary to find improved alternatives for gastric disorder treatment (5, 6). Natural products such as plants have been considered the raw materials for drug synthesis and constitute a considerable source of new therapeutic agents (7). Plant extracts are the essential sources of new medicine and have been efficacious in the peptic ulcer treatment (8).

Research in medicinal plants demonstrates that numerous plants have noteworthy medicinal potential. For instance, Pistacia atlantica is widely used for treating abdominal discomfort/pain and dyspepsia and also has antimicrobial, analgesic, and diuretic effects (9-11). Pistacia atlantica oil is also known as a stable and antioxidant material (12, 13). The antioxidant activity of essential oil of Pistacia atlantica was shown previously (14).

2. Methods

2.1. Preparation of Pistacia atlantica Hydroalcoholic Extract

Pistacia atlantica fruits were collected from the mountains of Yasuj, Iran, during autumn 2016. The voucher specimen (No., A1200910FP) is deposited at the herbarium of the Faculty of Pharmacy, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (AJUMS). The fruits were minced and 300 g of its powder was soaked in ethanol 70% (v/v) for 72 hours at the room temperature. The extract was filtered by filter papers and concentrated by a rotary evaporator under reduced pressure (40°C). Subsequently, the extract was dried in an oven at 37°C (to give a yield of 3%) and used as a powder.

2.2. Animals

42 adult male Wistar rats weighing 200 - 250 g were purchased from the animal house of AJUMS (Ahvaz, Iran). They were placed in standard single cages and kept under standardized conditions of temperature (22 ± 4°C) and humidity (55°C). They were fed a normal laboratory diet. The animals were fasted for 24 hours before the experiments and allowed water ad libitum. Furthermore, the institutional ethics committee of the medical school, AJUMS, approved all procedures adopted in this study (approval number: B-9531).

2.3. Induction of Acute Gastric Lesion by Ethanol

Gastric ulcer was induced in overnight fasted rats that were kept in mesh cages to prevent coprophagia but were free to access water (15) by administrating 100% ethanol orally (1 mL/200 g). One hour after ethanol application, the animals were anesthetized with ketamine (50 mg/kg) and xylazine (10 mg/kg). The stomachs were dissected and opened along the greater curvature to determine the number and the length of gastric lesions (16, 17).

Part of the stomach was excised and the sample was subsequently homogenized in cold potassium phosphate buffer (0.05 M, pH 7.4). The homogenate was centrifuged at 5000 rpm for l0 minutes. The obtained clear supernatant was stored at -80°C prior to analysis for subsequent measurement of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide (18).

2.4. Experimental Design

Experimental groups were orally treated with different doses of Pistacia atlantica hydroalcoholic extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg). Normal saline was orally administered to the ulcer control group (5 mL/kg). In addition, one hour before receiving ethanol (5 mL/kg), the positive control group received ranitidine (50 mg/kg) and the negative control group received normal saline (5 mL/kg). Finally, the last group received Pistacia atlantica extract (400 mg/kg) without ethanol administration (17, 19). Six animals in each group were used for the experiments.

2.5. Detection of Malondialdehyde in Rat Gastric Mucosa

The MDA formation was determined as a measure of peroxidation. The MDA level measurement was done via a commercial chemical colorimetric assay kit according to the manufacturer’s protocol (MDA assay kit; ZellBio GmbH, Ulm, Germany). It utilized the MDA-TBA adduct formed by the reaction of MDA with TBA (thiobarbituric acid) under elevated temperature. MDA is measured in acidic media and elevated temperature (90°C - 100°C) calorimetrically at 535 nm. This method can determine MDA with 0.1 µM sensitivity.

2.6. Detection of NO in Rat Gastric Mucosa

The NO level measurement was done by a commercial chemical colorimetric assay kit according to the manufacturer’s protocol (NO assay kit; ZellBio GmbH, Ulm, Germany) (CAT No. 2B-NO-96A, V406). It is employed to quantitatively assess nitric oxide based on its metabolites (nitrite/nitrate) and Griess reaction.

2.7. Histopathology

For histopathological assessment, the stomachs from all groups were fixed in 10% formalin solution and embedded in paraffin. Sections were then deparaffinized and stained with hematoxylin and eosin.

2.8. Statistical Analysis

The data are presented as the mean ± SD. The statistical significance of differences between the groups was determined by a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s post hoc test for multiple comparisons. A probability value of P < 0.05 was assumed to indicate the statistical significance.

3. Results

3.1. Effect of Pistacia atlantica on Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions

Oral pretreatment with Pistacia atlantica extracts caused a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the length (Figure 1 and 2A) and the number of gastric lesions (Figure 2B) in a dose-depended manner. Among the tested doses, the highest dose (400 mg/kg) showed the maximum inhibition of the length and number of gastric lesions. The same gastroprotective activity was observed for Pistacia atlantica extract (at 400 and 200 mg/kg doses) and ranitidine as the reference drug (Figure 2). There was no difference between the gastroprotective activity of doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg.

Gross evaluation of stomach from groups of A, normal saline; B, normal saline + ethanol; C, ethanol + Pistacia atlantica (100 mg/kg); D, ethanol + Pistacia atlantica (200 mg/kg); E, ethanol + Pistacia atlantica (400 mg/kg); and F, ethanol + ranitidine (50 mg/kg). The results showed that treatment with Pistacia atlantica at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg and ranitidine (50 mg/kg) decreased gastric ulcers.
Figure 1. Gross evaluation of stomach from groups of A, normal saline; B, normal saline + ethanol; C, ethanol + Pistacia atlantica (100 mg/kg); D, ethanol + Pistacia atlantica (200 mg/kg); E, ethanol + Pistacia atlantica (400 mg/kg); and F, ethanol + ranitidine (50 mg/kg). The results showed that treatment with Pistacia atlantica at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg and ranitidine (50 mg/kg) decreased gastric ulcers.
Effect of Pistacia atlantica extracts on A, length and B, numbers of gastric ulcers (in mm) induced by ethanol. Values are expressed as means ± SEM; n = 6. * Significant when compared with respective normal saline (NS) (P ≤ 0.05); # significant when compared with respective normal saline and ethanol (P ≤ 0.05); + significant when compared with respective ranitidine (P ≤ 0.05).
Figure 2. Effect of Pistacia atlantica extracts on A, length and B, numbers of gastric ulcers (in mm) induced by ethanol. Values are expressed as means ± SEM; n = 6. * Significant when compared with respective normal saline (NS) (P ≤ 0.05); # significant when compared with respective normal saline and ethanol (P ≤ 0.05); + significant when compared with respective ranitidine (P ≤ 0.05).

3.2. Stomach MDA

As compared with normal rats, the ethanol-treated group displayed a higher stomach MDA level (P < 0.05) (Figure 3). The administration of Pistacia atlantica extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg exhibited a significant reduction in the MDA level (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the effects of doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg.

Effect of Pistacia atlantica extracts on the stomach MDA levels. Values are expressed as means ± SEM; n = 6. * Significant when compared with respective normal saline (NS) (P ≤ 0.05); # significant when compared with respective normal saline and ethanol (P ≤ 0.05); + significant when compared with respective ranitidine (P ≤ 0.05).
Figure 3. Effect of Pistacia atlantica extracts on the stomach MDA levels. Values are expressed as means ± SEM; n = 6. * Significant when compared with respective normal saline (NS) (P ≤ 0.05); # significant when compared with respective normal saline and ethanol (P ≤ 0.05); + significant when compared with respective ranitidine (P ≤ 0.05).

3.3. Stomach NO

The ethanol treated group displayed a lower stomach NO level than all groups, hence leading to oxidative stress (P < 0.05) (Figure 4). The administration of Pistacia atlantica extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg exhibited a comparable increase in the level of NO in a dose-depended manner (P < 0.05) (Figure 4). There was no significant difference between the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg.

Effect of Pistacia atlantica extract on the stomach NO levels. Values are expressed as means ± SEM; n = 6. * Significant when compared with respective normal saline (NS) (P ≤ 0.05); # significant when compared with respective normal saline and ethanol (P ≤ 0.05); + significant when compared with respective ranitidine (P ≤ 0.05).
Figure 4. Effect of Pistacia atlantica extract on the stomach NO levels. Values are expressed as means ± SEM; n = 6. * Significant when compared with respective normal saline (NS) (P ≤ 0.05); # significant when compared with respective normal saline and ethanol (P ≤ 0.05); + significant when compared with respective ranitidine (P ≤ 0.05).

3.4. Histopathology

The histopathological findings of ethanol-treated stomach revealed several vast ulcers in the stomach mucosa (Figure 5A), which were characterized by the necrosis of epithelial and glandular cells and hemorrhage according to many erythrocytes (Figure 5B). The pretreatment of ethanol-induced animals with Pistacia atlantica extract (100 mg/kg) showed different ulcers with necrosis and hemorrhage in the stomach mucosa (Figure 5C and D). The group that received Pistacia atlantica extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) displayed a small area of ulcers and hyperemia (Figure 5E and F). The animals that received Pistacia atlantica extract (400 mg/kg) exhibited a decrease in the size of ulcers. Similar changes occurred in the group receiving ranitidine as the reference drug. Moreover, the ranitidine group showed hyperemia and focal desquamation of epithelial cells.

Obtained stomach tissues stained with H&amp;E. Appearance of rat stomachs in different groups: A, normal saline and ethanol; B, normal saline and ethanol with higher magnification; C, ethanol and pretreatment with 100 mg/kg Pistacia atlantica extract; D, ethanol and pretreatment with 100 mg/kg Pistacia atlantica extract with higher magnification; E, ethanol and pretreatment with 200 mg/kg Pistacia atlantica extract; F, ethanol and pretreatment with 400 mg/kg Pistacia atlantica extract; and G, ethanol and Ranitidine (50 mg/kg). The results showed A, large areas of hemorrhage (asterisk) and necrosis of the epithelium; B, desquamation of epithelial cells (black arrow) and necrotic cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and dark basophilic nuclei (red arrows). Also, hyperemia and hemorrhage (white asterisks) are seen; C, large areas of hemorrhage (white asterisk) and necrosis of the epithelium (black arrows); D, desquamation of epithelial cells, necrosis (red arrows), and hyperemia (black asterisk); E, hyperemia (red arrow) and desquamation of epithelial cells; F, hyperemia and desquamation of epithelial cells are obvious; and G, the normal structure of stomach.
Figure 5. Obtained stomach tissues stained with H&E. Appearance of rat stomachs in different groups: A, normal saline and ethanol; B, normal saline and ethanol with higher magnification; C, ethanol and pretreatment with 100 mg/kg Pistacia atlantica extract; D, ethanol and pretreatment with 100 mg/kg Pistacia atlantica extract with higher magnification; E, ethanol and pretreatment with 200 mg/kg Pistacia atlantica extract; F, ethanol and pretreatment with 400 mg/kg Pistacia atlantica extract; and G, ethanol and Ranitidine (50 mg/kg). The results showed A, large areas of hemorrhage (asterisk) and necrosis of the epithelium; B, desquamation of epithelial cells (black arrow) and necrotic cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and dark basophilic nuclei (red arrows). Also, hyperemia and hemorrhage (white asterisks) are seen; C, large areas of hemorrhage (white asterisk) and necrosis of the epithelium (black arrows); D, desquamation of epithelial cells, necrosis (red arrows), and hyperemia (black asterisk); E, hyperemia (red arrow) and desquamation of epithelial cells; F, hyperemia and desquamation of epithelial cells are obvious; and G, the normal structure of stomach.

4. Discussion

Ethanol-induced gastric ulcer is a usual, convenient animal model for the investigation of gastroprotective drugs. The role of ethanol is explained by its ulcerogenic effect. Ethanol progresses disarrangement in mucosal microcirculation and ischemia, produces free radicals, and releases endothelium (20).

The etiology of gastric ulcer is unknown in many patients. This is an indication of the imbalance between aggressive and protective factors leading to a peptic ulcer (21). In the present study, the oral administration of Pistacia atlantica displayed protective effects against ethanol-induced gastric lesions.

Additionally, NO is a major mediator for conduction of acid and alkaline secretion, as well as gastric mucosal secretion, and has considerable effects on gastric mucosal protection (22). In our study, the oral administration of Pistacia atlantica increased the NO level in stomach tissue.

Lipid peroxidation generates MDA as a product of secondary aldehyde formation. Moreover, MDA is a biological index of lipid peroxidation measurement (23). In this study, the oral administration of Pistacia atlantica decreased the MDA level in stomach tissue.

From the ancient times, plants and natural products have been used in folk medicine to cure the peptic ulcer (24). Pistacia atlantica belongs to the Anacardiaceae family (25). Pistacia species have numerous effects such as anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, anti-fungal, anti-microbial, antiviral, anti-insect, anti-atherogenic, hypoglycemic, anti-cancer, and hepatoprotective effects (26). Various compounds have been discovered in the essential oil of some pistacia species such as cymene, Linalool, β-caryophyllene, α-thujene, finkone, sabinene, α- phellandrene, cineol, α-finkone, borneol, and α-terpineol (23). Pistacia atlantica has noticeable effects against Helicobacter pylori (27, 28). The oral and rectal administration of Pistacia atlantica fruit extract showed reliable effects on induced colitis physiologically and pathologically (29).

The results of the current study revealed that the oral administration of Pistacia atlantica could significantly protect the gastric mucosa from ulcer induction by ethanol in a dose-depended fashion. The highest dose (400 mg/kg) showed the maximum gastroprotective effect. Pretreatment with Pistacia atlantica extract displayed a significant reduction in the MDA level and a comparable increase in the NO level.

The results obtained in the present research are in line with those of other studies. Gourine et al. studied the antioxidant activity and chemical composition of Pistacia atlantica essential oil, and the results revealed that Pistacia atlantica essential oil has an antioxidant effect and has monoterpene and oxygenated sesquiterpenes like α-pinen and α-thujene (14).

Moreover, Tanideh et al. studied the healing effect of Pistacia atlantica fruit oil extract in acetic acid-induced colitis in rats and concluded that the oral and rectal administration of Pistacia atlantica fruit extract was effective in treating induced colitis in rats (29).

Minaiyan et al. studied the anti-inflammatory effect of Pistacia atlantica volatile oil and gum on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats and found that oral gum and volatile oil of Pistacia atlantica have anti-inflammatory effects in acetic acid-induced colitis in rats (30).

Ghaedi et al. studied the protective effect of Pistacia khinjuk on gentamycin (GM)-induced nephrotoxicity in rats and found out that the administration of Pistacia khinjuk extract has a protective effect against GM-induced nephrotoxicity. They concluded that this effect may be due to Pistacia khinjuk antioxidant properties (31).

In conclusion, the present study revealed that the gastroprotective effect of Pistacia atlantica in the experimental lesions induced by ethanol could be related to phenolic compounds that exist in Pistacia atlantica and produce antioxidant properties, which reduce the level of malondialdehyde and increase the activity of antioxidant agents such as nitric oxide. Therefore, we suggest that due to both antioxidant and antiulcer properties, Pistacia atlantica might be useful in the clinical treatment of gastric disorders.

Acknowledgements

Footnotes

References

  • 1.

    Mota KS, Dias GE, Pinto ME, Luiz-Ferreira A, Souza-Brito AR, Hiruma-Lima CA, et al. Flavonoids with gastroprotective activity. Molecules. 2009;14(3):979-1012. doi: 10.3390/molecules14030979. [PubMed: 19305355]. [PubMed Central: PMC6253827].

  • 2.

    Kwiecien S, Brzozowski T, Konturek SJ. Effects of reactive oxygen species action on gastric mucosa in various models of mucosal injury. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2002;53(1):39-50. [PubMed: 11939718].

  • 3.

    Manjari V, Das UN. Oxidant stress, anti-oxidants, nitric oxide and essential fatty acids in peptic ulcer disease. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1998;59(6):401-6. [PubMed: 10102386].

  • 4.

    Rao Ch V, Ojha SK, Radhakrishnan K, Govindarajan R, Rastogi S, Mehrotra S, et al. Antiulcer activity of Utleria salicifolia rhizome extract. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;91(2-3):243-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2003.12.020. [PubMed: 15120446].

  • 5.

    Bandyopadhyay D, Biswas K, Bhattacharyya M, Reiter RJ, Banerjee RK. Involvement of reactive oxygen species in gastric ulceration: Protection by melatonin. Indian J Exp Biol. 2002;40(6):693-705. [PubMed: 12587717].

  • 6.

    Lehne RA, Rosenthal L. Pharmacology for nursing care. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2014.

  • 7.

    Nwidu LL, Nwafor PA. Gastroprotective effects of leaf extracts of Carpolobia lutea (polygalaceae) G. Don. in rats. Afr J Biotechnol. 2009;8(1).

  • 8.

    Jainu M, Vijai Mohan K, Shyamala Devi CS. Gastroprotective effect of Cissus quadrangularis extract in rats with experimentally induced ulcer. Indian J Med Res. 2006;123(6):799-806. [PubMed: 16885602].

  • 9.

    Ghalem BR, Mohamed B. Essential oil from gum of Pistacia atlantica Desf.: Screening of antimicrobial activity. Afr J Pharm Pharmaco. 2009;3(3):87-91.

  • 10.

    Ahmad NS, Waheed A, Farman M, Qayyum A. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Pistacia integerrima extracts in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;129(2):250-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.03.017. [PubMed: 20359528].

  • 11.

    Rhouma A, Ben Daoud H, Ghanmi S, Ben Salah H, Romdhane M, Demak M. Antimicrobial activities of leaf extracts of Pistacia and Schinus species against some plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria. J Plant Pathol. 2009:339-45.

  • 12.

    Farhoosh R, Tavassoli-Kafrani MH, Sharif A. Antioxidant activity of the fractions separated from the unsaponifiable matter of bene hull oil. Food Chem. 2011;126(2):583-9. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.11.047.

  • 13.

    Delazar A, Reid RG, Sarker SD. GC-MS analysis of the essential oil from the oleoresin of Pistacia atlantica var. mutica. Chem Nat Compd. 2004;40(1):24-7. doi: 10.1023/B:CONC.0000025459.72590.9e.

  • 14.

    Gourine N, Yousfi M, Bombarda I, Nadjemi B, Stocker P, Gaydou EM. Antioxidant activities and chemical composition of essential oil of Pistacia atlantica from Algeria. Ind Crop Prod. 2010;31(2):203-8. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2009.10.003.

  • 15.

    Alam S, Asad M, Asdaq SM, Prasad VS. Antiulcer activity of methanolic extract of Momordica charantia L. in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;123(3):464-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2009.03.024. [PubMed: 19501279].

  • 16.

    Sanchez-Mendoza ME, Reyes-Trejo B, Sanchez-Gomez P, Rodriguez-Silverio J, Castillo-Henkel C, Cervantes-Cuevas H, et al. Bioassay-guided isolation of an anti-ulcer chromene from Eupatorium aschenbornianum: role of nitric oxide, prostaglandins and sulfydryls. Fitoterapia. 2010;81(1):66-71. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2009.07.009. [PubMed: 19651191].

  • 17.

    Morsy MA, Heeba GH, Abdelwahab SA, Rofaeil RR. Protective effects of nebivolol against cold restraint stress-induced gastric ulcer in rats: role of NO, HO-1, and COX-1,2. Nitric Oxide. 2012;27(2):117-22. doi: 10.1016/j.niox.2012.06.001. [PubMed: 22687651].

  • 18.

    Morsy MA, Fouad AA. Mechanisms of gastroprotective effect of eugenol in indomethacin-induced ulcer in rats. Phytother Res. 2008;22(10):1361-6. doi: 10.1002/ptr.2502. [PubMed: 18543354].

  • 19.

    Antonisamy P, Duraipandiyan V, Aravinthan A, Al-Dhabi NA, Ignacimuthu S, Choi KC, et al. Protective effects of friedelin isolated from Azima tetracantha Lam. against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats and possible underlying mechanisms. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015;750:167-75. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.01.015. [PubMed: 25617794].

  • 20.

    Arawwawala LD, Thabrew MI, Arambewela LS. Gastroprotective activity of Trichosanthes cucumerina in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;127(3):750-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2009.11.026. [PubMed: 19963056].

  • 21.

    Bafna PA, Balaraman R. Anti-ulcer and antioxidant activity of DHC-1, a herbal formulation. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;90(1):123-7. [PubMed: 14698519].

  • 22.

    Santos Cerqueira G, dos Santos e Silva G, Rios Vasconcelos E, Fragoso de Freitas AP, Arcanjo Moura B, Silveira Macedo D, et al. Effects of hecogenin and its possible mechanism of action on experimental models of gastric ulcer in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012;683(1-3):260-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2012.02.043. [PubMed: 22426163].

  • 23.

    Kath RK, Gupta RK. Antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic leaf extract of ocimum sanctum in animal models of peptic ulcer. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006;50(4):391-6. [PubMed: 17402269].

  • 24.

    Rodriguez JA, Theoduloz C, Yanez T, Becerra J, Schmeda-Hirschmann G. Gastroprotective and ulcer healing effect of ferruginol in mice and rats: Assessment of its mechanism of action using in vitro models. Life Sci. 2006;78(21):2503-9. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2005.10.018. [PubMed: 16309708].

  • 25.

    Benhammou N, Bekkara FA, Panovska TK. Antiradical capacity of the phenolic compounds oF Pistacia lentiscus L. AND Pistacia atlantica desf. Adv Food Sci. 2007;29(3):155-61.

  • 26.

    Peksel A, Arisan‐Atac IN, Yanardag R. Evaluation of antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activities of the extracts of Pistacia atlantica Desf. Leaves. J Food Biochem. 2010;34(3):451-76. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-4514.2009.00290.x.

  • 27.

    Sharifi MS, Hazell SL. GC-MS analysis and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of the trunk exudates from Pistacia atlantica kurdica. J Pharm Sci Res. 2011;3(8):1364.

  • 28.

    Sharifi MS, Hazell SL. Isolation, analysis and antimicrobial activity of the acidic fractions of Mastic, Kurdica, Mutica and Cabolica gums from genus Pistacia. Glob J Health Sci. 2011;4(1):217-28. doi: 10.5539/gjhs.v4n1p217. [PubMed: 22980113]. [PubMed Central: PMC4777032].

  • 29.

    Tanideh N, Masoumi S, Hosseinzadeh M, Safarpour AR, Erjaee H, Koohi-Hosseinabadi O, et al. Healing effect of pistacia atlantica fruit oil extract in acetic Acid-induced colitis in rats. Iran J Med Sci. 2014;39(6):522-8. [PubMed: 25429174]. [PubMed Central: PMC4242986].

  • 30.

    Minaiyan M, Karimi F, Ghannadi A. Anti-inflammatory effect of Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica volatile oil and gum on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rat. Res J Pharmacog. 2015;2(2):1-12.

  • 31.

    Ghaedi T, Mirzaei A, Laameerad B. Protective effect of Pistacia khinjuk on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. World J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2014;3:919-26.

  • COMMENTS

    LEAVE A COMMENT HERE: