Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products

Published by: Kowsar

Ginkgo biloba Extract Decreases Scopolamine-Induced Congophilic Amyloid Plaques Accumulation in Male Rat's Brain

Emsehgol Nikmahzar 1 , Mehrdad Jahanshahi 2 , * and Fatemeh Babakordi 1
Authors Information
1 Neuroscience Research Center, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran
2 Neuroscience Research Center, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Gorgan, Iran
Article information
  • Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products: November 30, 2018, 13 (4); e69143
  • Published Online: December 2, 2018
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: February 6, 2017
  • Revised: April 7, 2018
  • Accepted: April 7, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/jjnpp.69143

To Cite: Nikmahzar E , Jahanshahi M, Babakordi F. Ginkgo biloba Extract Decreases Scopolamine-Induced Congophilic Amyloid Plaques Accumulation in Male Rat's Brain, Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod. 2018 ; 13(4):e69143. doi: 10.5812/jjnpp.69143.

Copyright © 2018, Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Muazzam Khan M, Ahsan F, Ahmad U, Akhtar J, Mujahid M; Badruddeen. Alzheimer disease: A review. World J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2016;5(6):649-66. doi: 10.20959/wjpps20166-7045.
  • 2. Heggland I, Storkaas IS, Soligard HT, Kobro-Flatmoen A, Witter MP. Stereological estimation of neuron number and plaque load in the hippocampal region of a transgenic rat model of Alzheimer's disease. Eur J Neurosci. 2015;41(9):1245-62. doi: 10.1111/ejn.12876. [PubMed: 25808554].
  • 3. Hsu PJ, Shou H, Benzinger T, Marcus D, Durbin T, Morris JC, et al. Amyloid burden in cognitively normal elderly is associated with preferential hippocampal subfield volume loss. J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;45(1):27-33. doi: 10.3233/JAD-141743. [PubMed: 25428255]. [PubMed Central: PMC4351157].
  • 4. Kaur R, Parveen S, Mehan S, Khanna D, Kalra S. Neuroprotective effect of ellagic acid against chronically scopolamine induced Alzheimer’s type memory and cognitive dysfunctions: Possible behavioural and biochemical evidences. Int J Preven Med Res. 2015;1:45-64.
  • 5. Liu X, Hao W, Qin Y, Decker Y, Wang X, Burkart M, et al. Long-term treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 improves symptoms and pathology in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Brain Behav Immun. 2015;46:121-31. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2015.01.011. [PubMed: 25637484].
  • 6. Mohs RC. A perspective on risks that impede development of drugs to modify the course of Alzheimer's disease: Can they be reduced? Alzheimers Dement. 2008;4(1 Suppl 1):S85-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2007.11.011. [PubMed: 18632007].
  • 7. Galasko DR, Graff-Radford N, May S, Hendrix S, Cottrell BA, Sagi SA, et al. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and Abeta levels after short-term administration of R-flurbiprofen in healthy elderly individuals. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2007;21(4):292-9. doi: 10.1097/WAD.0b013e31815d1048. [PubMed: 18090435].
  • 8. Castellani RJ, Perry G. Pathogenesis and disease-modifying therapy in Alzheimer's disease: The flat line of progress. Arch Med Res. 2012;43(8):694-8. doi: 10.1016/j.arcmed.2012.09.009. [PubMed: 23085451].
  • 9. Liu T, Xia Z, Zhang WW, Xu JR, Ge XX, Li J, et al. Bis(9)-(-)-nor-meptazinol as a novel dual-binding AChEI potently ameliorates scopolamine-induced cognitive deficits in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2013;104:138-43. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2012.11.009. [PubMed: 23262302].
  • 10. Bihaqi SW, Singh AP, Tiwari M. Supplementation of Convolvulus pluricaulis attenuates scopolamine-induced increased tau and amyloid precursor protein (AbetaPP) expression in rat brain. Indian J Pharmacol. 2012;44(5):593-8. doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.100383. [PubMed: 23112420]. [PubMed Central: PMC3480791].
  • 11. Pachauri SD, Tota S, Khandelwal K, Verma PR, Nath C, Hanif K, et al. Protective effect of fruits of Morinda citrifolia L. on scopolamine induced memory impairment in mice: A behavioral, biochemical and cerebral blood flow study. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;139(1):34-41. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.09.057. [PubMed: 22107832].
  • 12. Wang X, Wang ZH, Wu YY, Tang H, Tan L, Wang X, et al. Melatonin attenuates scopolamine-induced memory/synaptic disorder by rescuing EPACs/miR-124/Egr1 pathway. Mol Neurobiol. 2013;47(1):373-81. doi: 10.1007/s12035-012-8355-9. [PubMed: 23054680].
  • 13. Capurro V, Busquet P, Lopes JP, Bertorelli R, Tarozzo G, Bolognesi ML, et al. Pharmacological characterization of memoquin, a multi-target compound for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PLoS One. 2013;8(2). e56870. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056870. [PubMed: 23441223]. [PubMed Central: PMC3575497].
  • 14. Aisen PS, Cummings J, Schneider LS. Symptomatic and nonamyloid/tau based pharmacologic treatment for Alzheimer disease. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2012;2(3). a006395. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a006395. [PubMed: 22393531]. [PubMed Central: PMC3282492].
  • 15. Andrieu S, Gillette S, Amouyal K, Nourhashemi F, Reynish E, Ousset PJ, et al. Association of Alzheimer's disease onset with Ginkgo biloba and other symptomatic cognitive treatments in a population of women aged 75 years and older from the EPIDOS study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2003;58(4):372-7. doi: 10.1093/gerona/58.4.M372. [PubMed: 12663701].
  • 16. Heinonen T, Gaus W. Cross matching observations on toxicological and clinical data for the assessment of tolerability and safety of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract. Toxicology. 2015;327:95-115. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2014.10.013. [PubMed: 25446328].
  • 17. Kwon KJ, Lee EJ, Cho KS, Cho DH, Shin CY, Han SH. Ginkgo biloba extract (Egb761) attenuates zinc-induced tau phosphorylation at Ser262 by regulating GSK3beta activity in rat primary cortical neurons. Food Funct. 2015;6(6):2058-67. doi: 10.1039/c5fo00219b. [PubMed: 26032477].
  • 18. Jahanshahi M, Nickmahzar EG, Babakordi F. Effect of Gingko biloba extract on scopolamine-induced apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats. Anat Sci Int. 2013;88(4):217-22. doi: 10.1007/s12565-013-0188-8. [PubMed: 23828103].
  • 19. Seifhosseini S, Jahanshahi M, Moghimi A, Aazami NS. The effect of scopolamine on avoidance memory and hippocampal neurons in male wistar rats. Basic Clin Neurosci. 2011;3(1):9-15.
  • 20. Jahanshahi M, Sadeghi Y, Hosseini A. Estimation of astrocyte number in different subfield of rat hippocampus. Pak J Biolog Sci. 2006;9(8):1595-7.
  • 21. Lee B, Park J, Kwon S, Park MW, Oh SM, Yeom MJ, et al. Effect of wild ginseng on scopolamine-induced acetylcholine depletion in the rat hippocampus. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2010;62(2):263-71. doi: 10.1211/jpp.62.02.0015. [PubMed: 20487207].
  • 22. Jahanshahi M, Nickmahzar EG, Seif-Hoseini S, Babakordi F, Moharreri A. Scopolamine reduces the density of M1 muscarinic neurons in rats' hippocampus. Int J Morphol. 2013;31(4).
  • 23. Hosseini-Sharifabad M, Anvari M. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on the structure of Cornu ammonis in aged rat: A morphometric study. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2015;18(9):932-7. [PubMed: 26523225]. [PubMed Central: PMC4620195].
  • 24. Rocher MN, Carre D, Spinnewyn B, Schulz J, Delaflotte S, Pignol B, et al. Long-term treatment with standardized Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) attenuates cognitive deficits and hippocampal neuron loss in a gerbil model of vascular dementia. Fitoterapia. 2011;82(7):1075-80. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2011.07.001. [PubMed: 21820038].
  • 25. Choi DY, Lee YJ, Lee SY, Lee YM, Lee HH, Choi IS, et al. Attenuation of scopolamine-induced cognitive dysfunction by obovatol. Arch Pharm Res. 2012;35(7):1279-86. doi: 10.1007/s12272-012-0719-1. [PubMed: 22864751].
  • 26. Luo Y, Smith JV, Paramasivam V, Burdick A, Curry KJ, Buford JP, et al. Inhibition of amyloid-beta aggregation and caspase-3 activation by the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99(19):12197-202. doi: 10.1073/pnas.182425199. [PubMed: 12213959]. [PubMed Central: PMC129421].
  • 27. Shi C, Zhao L, Zhu B, Li Q, Yew DT, Yao Z, et al. Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) and its constituents quercetin and ginkgolide B against beta-amyloid peptide-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Chem Biol Interact. 2009;181(1):115-23. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2009.05.010. [PubMed: 19464278].
  • 28. Bastianetto S, Ramassamy C, Dore S, Christen Y, Poirier J, Quirion R. The Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) protects hippocampal neurons against cell death induced by beta-amyloid. Eur J Neurosci. 2000;12(6):1882-90. doi: 10.1046/j.1460-9568.2000.00069.x. [PubMed: 10886329].
  • 29. Smith JV, Luo Y. Elevation of oxidative free radicals in Alzheimer's disease models can be attenuated by Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761. J Alzheimers Dis. 2003;5(4):287-300. doi: 10.3233/JAD-2003-5404. [PubMed: 14624024].
  • 30. Mullaicharam AR. A review on evidence based practice of Ginkgo biloba in brain health. Int J Chem Pharm Anal. 2013;1(1):24-30.

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments